# Boolean Search

## Definitions

• A search technique that utilizes Boolean Logic to connect individual keywords or phrases within a single query such as AND, OR, and NOT, within (w/5) , and NOT withinN (not w/5). 1 2
• A in which the s are combined using operators such as “AND,” “OR,” and “[BUT] NOT.” The result of a Boolean Search is precisely determined by the words contained in the s. (See also method.) 3
• The term "Boolean" refers to a system of logic developed by an early computer pioneer, George Boole. In Boolean searching, an "and" operator between two words results in a search for documents containing both of the words. An "or" operator between two words creates a search for documents containing either of the target words. A "not" operator between two words creates a search result containing the first word but excluding the second. 4 5 6
• A search type using Boolean logic operators between search terms that indicate a relationship between them. An "AND" operator between two words or other values (for example, "pear AND apple") means one is searching for documents containing both of the words or values, not just one of them. An "OR" operator between two words or other values (for example, "pear OR apple") means one is searching for documents containing either of the words. 7
• Mathematical query language developed by English mathematician George Boole in the 19th century. Boolean searching of text is based on the underlying logic functions of various true/false statements. Common Boolean operators are “and,” “but not,” and “within.” 8
• A search for information using “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” commands, such as “Tom but not Jones” or “bankruptcy and trustee.” 9
• The use of the terms “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” in conducting searches. Used to widen or narrow the scope of a search. 10

## Notes

1. EDRM Search Guide Glossary.
2. EDRM Search Glossary.
3. Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).
4. Fios, E-Discovery Glossary, http://discoveryresources.org/01_electronic_discovery_glossary.html
5. Fenwick & West LLP, FWPS eDiscovery Terminology (11/6/2005). Citing Applied Discovery's Glossary, http://www.lexisnexis.com/applieddiscovery/clientResources/glossary_B.asp
6. RSI, Glossary.
7. Ibis Consulting, Glossary.
8. Legal Electronic Document Institute, Basic Principles of Automated Litigation Support (2005).
9. Legal Electronic Document Institute, Basic Principles of Automated Litigation Support (2005).
10. Formerly American Document Management, Glossary of Terms, now 5i Solutions Glossary.
A search in which all Documents that contain one or more specific Keywords are returned.

Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).

A word (or Search Term) that is used as part of a Query in a Keyword Search.

Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).

In the context of Electronic Discovery, a discrete item of Electronically Stored Information that may be the subject or result of a search or review effort.

Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).

A Feature Engineering method in which the Features of each Document comprise the set of words contained in that Document. Documents are determined to be Relevant or Not Relevant depending on what words they contain. Elementary Keyword Search and Boolean Search methods, as well as some Machine Learning methods, use the Bag of Words model.

Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).