• Any file produced by a software application. 1
  • Any file produced by a software application. Includes but is not limited to any electronically stored data on magnetic or optical storage media as an “active” file or files (readily readable by one or more computer applications or forensics software); any “deleted” but recoverable electronic files on said media; any electronic file fragments (files that have been deleted and partially overwritten with new data); and slack (data fragments stored randomly from random access memory on a hard drive during the normal operation of a computer [RAM slack] or residual data left on the hard drive after new data has overwritten some but not all of previously stored data). 2
  • See Rule 34 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. 3
  • One or several single pages of images that make a logical single communication of information. Examples include a letter, a report, a memo or an airline ticket. A “document” may be any means of communicating, informing or educating, including hard-copy paper, electronic documents, e-mail, voice mail, video, x-rays, drawings, etc. 4
  • A document is a page or collection of pages that are physically or logically (or both) linked. 5
  • Fed. R. Civ. P. 34(a) defines a document as “including writings, drawings, graphs, charts, photographs, phonorecords, and other data compilations.” In the electronic discovery world, a document also refers to a collection of pages representing an electronic file. E-mails, attachments, databases, word documents, spreadsheets, and graphic files are all examples of electronic documents. 6
  • In the context of Electronic Discovery, a discrete item of Electronically Stored Information that may be the subject or result of a search or review effort. 7


  1. Fios, E-Discovery Glossary,
  2. RSI, Glossary.
  3. Merrill Corporation, Electronic Discovery Glossary.
  4. Formerly American Document Management, Glossary of Terms, now 5i Solutions Glossary.
  5. Formerly American Document Management, Glossary of Terms, now 5i Solutions Glossary.
  6. Kroll Ontrack, Glossary of Terms,
  7. Maura R. Grossman and Gordon V. Cormack, EDRM page & The Grossman-Cormack Glossary of Technology-Assisted Review, with Foreword by John M. Facciola, U.S. Magistrate Judge2013 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 7 (January 2013).
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